The German War: A Nation Under Arms, 1939-1945
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Stargardt presents evidence that regular Germans learned of the genocide undertaken as the result of German policy through word of mouth. Massive resistance to the Nazis didn't take place in Germany, and as the war went on, the author documents, German media increasingly \"hinted at what people already knew, fostering a sense of collusive semi-secrecy.\" This 'spiral of silence', according to Stargardt, produced a sense of quasi-complicity among Germans even among those who did not directly participate in atrocities given the widespread knowledge of particular events. The author additionally writes that the Germans began the conflict in the conviction that they were fighting \"a war of national defense forced upon them\" due to the actions of the Allied powers, particularly what got seen as the Polish Republic's \"aggression\".
As well, the Allied powers' widespread bombing of Germany convinced the people under the Nazi regime of their own victimhood, an emotion that the author states got mixed with guilt over the mistreatment of Jews, Ukrainians, Poles and others under the Axis powers. As the conflict dragged on, Stargardt writes that the determination with which Germans fought long after it became clear that the Third Reich had essentially lost was based in conviction that the conflagration \"must never come home to Germany\" given what had been dished out to other nations. Stargardt goes on to explore the remarkable resilience of defeated Germans who, despite living under military occupation, organized themselves to receive and assist the millions of ethnic Germans expelled from countries to Germany's east and south during the end of the War.
(Chs. XIV-XV; treated more fully in Military Relations Between theUnited States and Canada: 1939-1945). 11. U.S. Army operations in northern Canada during World War II (Ch. XV).12. Army-Navy joint action and relationships in support of hemisphere defenseclans and measures (Ch. I). 13. The interplay between military and political objectives in planningand executing hemisphere defense measures (Ch. I). 14. The organization and strength of the United States Army, 1939-41 (Chs.I-II, VI). 15. The military weakness of the United States during a period of rapidmobilization (Chs. II, IV-VI). 16. Army plans for emergency expeditionary forces (Chs. I, II, IV-VII).17. American entry into the Battle of the Atlantic (Chs. I, II, IV-VI).18. American military policy and plans for action toward European possessionsunder threat of hostile control (Chs. I, II, IV-VII). 19. The Destroyer-Base Agreement of 1940 (Ch. II). 20. Plans for military action in the Azores, Iceland, and other Atlanticareas during 1940 and 1941 (Chs. IV-VII).
June 1998 - The first annual edition of Landmine Monitor Report, compiled under the auspices of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (see 1992 entry for ICBL), a comprehensive reference guide to landmine facts and statistics around the world including landmine casualties, is released. It is a valuable reference tool for all interested in humanitarian mine action. On-line issues may be downloaded from www.icbl.org/lm.
September 1998 - Drawing on public data collected while under contract to the U.S. Department of Defense, AVS Consultants UK devises and disseminates the first database of demining accident victims. It includes details of the injuries sustained and how the accidents occurred. After its utility as a reference and training tool is established, the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) and the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) support the release of an approved version in May 2002. Further updates are planned. The latest release is called the Database on Demining Accidents and is available from Mr. Paul Ellis at the GICHD. Email requests to firstname.lastname@example.org.
March 1999 - The Royal Military College of Sciences at Cranfield University in Shrivenham, England, part of the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom, forms the Cranfield Mine Action unit (CMA) to support mine action work of the British government and of the UN. CMA's mine action professionals, academicians, and management experts also train mid-level and senior program managers of foreign national mine action centers. The U.S. Department of State's Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs has underwritten some of this training (see www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2002/10989.htm for an example.) To learn more, visit www.rcms.cranfield.ac.uk/cma.
May 2003 - Two Warner Bros. public service messages in the Khmer language commissioned by the U.S. Department of State's Bureau of Political-Military Affairs and USAID's Leahy War Victims Fund, starring Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, and a Cambodian mine survivor specially created by Warner Bros. animators, are televised nationally in Cambodia and distributed in rural areas via videotape and other means. One has a mine risk education message; the other deals with mine survivors social reintegration. These innovative messages that blend animation and real film footage of Cambodia are designed to reinforce existing mine risk education and war victims rehabilitation programs already in place in Cambodia. See the press release at www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2003/20554.htm. To view the messages, visit , click on \"U.S. Government,\" click on \"U.S. Department of State,\" then click on \"Bugs and Daffy Mine Awareness Film\" under the Articles, Publications and Reports heading.
WITHDRAWN ITEMS: Selected folders may contain withdrawal sheets where documents containing national security classified information were removed from this collection. All withdrawn documents have been placed under seal and upon request the Kennedy Library will review any material which has been closed for a period of not less than 2 years for the purpose of opening items which no longer require restrictions. Researchers should consult the reference staff to obtain the appropriate form(s). UNPROCESSED MATERIAL: An additional 8.616 cubic feet of material remains closed pending processing.
The termination of the Second World War left the Finns relieved that the hostilities were over and that they had succeeded in preserving their independence but horrified at the unreasonable reparations demanded of them under the peace treaty with the Soviet Union. Finland had lost almost 100,000 citizens in the war, the connection with the Arctic Ocean had been cut off by the ceding of the Petsamo area to the Soviet Union, and the country had also had to relinquish its second largest city, Viipuri (Vyborg), extensive areas of Karelia and a small strip of territory on the eastern border of Lapland. About one-eighth of the prewar area of Finland was lost, including the Petsamo area with its valuable nickel mines.
In 2017, migrant workers accounted for 70 percent of international migrants of working age (fifteen years or older). For a variety of reasons, even this figure is probably an underestimate. World Migration Report 2003, quoted in: IOM, World Migration Report 2020, 33.
(Offered as GERM 364, ARCH 364, and EUST 364) This course will address a number of developments and transformations in contemporary urban architecture and performance from an international perspective. We will explore issues including, but not limited to, trauma, memory, absence, perception, corporeality, representation, and the senses in our examination of recent work in Germany and elsewhere, and read a number of texts from the fields of philosophy, critical theory, performance studies, and visual and architectural studies, in an attempt to understand how architecture is beginning to develop compositional systems in which to envision dynamic and responsive spaces in specific cultural contexts. We will focus our research on the work of a number of German and international architects, performance, and new media artists, including Jochen Gerz, Renata Stih and Frieder Schnock, Horst Hoheisel, Micha Ullman, Shimon Attie, Daniel Libeskind, Peter Eisenman, Rem Koolhaas, Greg Lynn, Mark Goulthorpe, R & Sie(n), Axel Kilian, Paul Privitera, Hani Rashid and Lise-Anne Couture, Herzog and de Meuron, Archigram, William Forsythe, Jan Fabre, Rachel Whiteread, Rebecca Horn, Sasha Waltz, Richard Siegal, Michael Schumacher, Robert Wilson, the Blix Brothers of Berlin, Pina Bausch, Granular Synthesis, Sponge, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Toni Dove, and many others. Conducted in English, with German majors required to do a substantial portion of the reading in German.
(Offered as ARHA 385, EUST 385, and SWAG 310) Our course will explore how evil was imagined, over cultures, centuries and disciplines. With the greatest possible historical and cultural specificity, we will investigate an array of monstrous creatures and plagues -- their terrifying powers, the explanations for why they came to be, and the strategies for how they could be purged -- as we attempt to articulate the kindred qualities they shared. We will study centuries-old witch burning manuals, and note the striking degree to which dangerous tropes -- about women, about pestilence, about dangerous sexuality, and about differences of all kinds -- have continued to our day. Among the artists to be considered are Velázquez, Goya, Picasso, Dalí, Buñuel, Dreyer, Wilder, Almodóvar, and the community who made the AIDS Quilt. Except for the student visits to the Mead Museum, our class will be online. In addition to vibrant discussions, there will be weekly written assignments to deepen students' understanding of the material, as well as to develop the beauty of their writing, the acuity of their sight, their synthetic and analytical powers. There will be frequent one-on-one meetings with me, and constantly changing mini-groups, as we learn and explore together.Not open to first-year students. This course fulfills a requirement for the Five College Reproductive Health, Rights and Justice (RHRJ) certificate.Limited to 15 students. Fall semester. Professor Staller. 59ce067264