The following risk factors were assessed for those patients diagnosed with first-ever stroke: gender, age, stressful periods (i.e., mentally or emotionally disruptive or upsetting situations such as getting lost, losing money, missing ritual rules, etc.), current smoking status, and past history of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, transient ischemic attack, ischemic heart disease, and atrial fibrillation. For our second objective, we regarded the Hajj pilgrims as the exposed group and compared them to the non-exposed population, derived from the data source of the MSIS stroke incidence study, in the manner of a historical cohort. From the MSIS database, the first-ever stroke cases during the exact period of the Hajj ceremony were extracted.
Islet transplantation may potentially cure type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, immune rejection, especially that induced by the alloreactive T-cell response, remains a restraining factor for the long-term survival of grafted islets. Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) is a negative costimulatory molecule. PD-L1 deficiency within the donor heart accelerates allograft rejection. Here, we investigate whether PD-L1 deficiency in donor islets reduces allograft survival time. 59ce067264